In 2008, cracks (crack is the smoked form of cocaine) were detected as the fourth most commonly used illegal substance in the United States (comparatively to the number of heroin, cocaine, and marijuana users ). In 2011, approximately 46.2 million Americans used some form of illicit drug with the number of people using crack cocaine and cocaine estimated to be more than half this total (23.8 million and 17.6 million, respectively) . Of the types of psychoactive drugs, cocaine is the most commonly used illicit drug and now, among people who use illicit drugs, cocaine is the drug most often associated with violent, aggressive, or homicidal behavior .
Worldwide, the emergence of crack/cocaine use has been linked to increased rates of HIV-1 infection and risk of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition in women [8-10]. National and international data show that crack/cocaine users have more sexual partners and engage in more unprotected anal or vaginal sex than nonuser groups [11-13]. Moreover, crack/cocaine users are more likely to get sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as HIV-1, chlamydial infections, and gonorrhea [14, 15]. Crack cocaine users are also more likely to have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and more advanced HCV disease, a result of sharing injecting equipment [16, 17].
In reality, the drug causes a temporary state of 'euphoria' which is followed by a subsequent 'crash', most often accompanied by physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, and depression. Patients may also experience transient, reversible tachycardia, hypertension, anxiety, insomnia, and hallucinations .
However, it is not possible to determine whether people with regard to behavior are using cocaine or its relative, because some cocaine users use cocktails of licit or illicit substances in addition to using cocaine. This inevitably leads to a multifactorial nature to risky behaviors and drug use behavior. d2c66b5586