Before the rod was introduced in 1942, Charles F. Orvis, Sr. had hired an Englishman named George Reid to work in the factory. Reid was the first to use bamboo in the United States. He had come to America in 1933 from China, where his father and grandfather, also George Reid, had been importers of Chinese silk and bamboo materials. In the late 1930s, Reid began making rods and mountings for flyfishers who could not fish on English waters, where bamboo was still the classic rod material. The first Orvis rods were made of bamboo and then Orvis switched to it. When Reid left Orvis in 1950, the bamboo-made rods were discontinued and the graphite rods began. Reid was Orvis' head rodman for three decades.
Orvis' first graphite rod was a 2-footer made of the new material. It weighed only 3.5 ounces and was a total flop. Not until a few years later, when Reid switched to a lighter rod-making material, did the new rod's qualities become apparent. It was the beginning of a long relationship with graphite as the material of choice for anglers. In the late 1970s, Reid replaced the graphite rods Orvis made by his own hand with more durable graphite rods made in the molding facility.
The Corkran rod first hit the market in 1942. Between then and 2000, the rods have been made in 24 different configurations, ranging in length from 2 to 14 feet, and the weight has ranged from 2 to 8 ounces. But a dozen years ago, Orvis ceased to make the big aluminum rods that used to cost $250 or more, and began making them of lighter, stronger graphite.
Although the BPM has been widely used for rock simulations, the initial version of the BPM was developed for brittle rocks only. The BPM was extended to apply to non-brittle rocks by Bai & Peng (1990) and Su, Zhu, & Li (2009), who developed a three-dimensional cohesive model. This model, however, was not able to investigate the effect of particle size. This paper would be the first to investigate the effect of particle size on cracking processes. The present research will analyse and discuss the effect of particle size on cracking behavior in the BPM using a three-dimensional cohesive model for non-brittle rocks. 827ec27edc