Solving drainage problems is a major issue in the design and construction of roads. Drainage problems include soil compaction, water erosion, and debris build-up in the drainage pipe. Asphalt drainage solutions includes choosing appropriate material for each area and adjusting the slope of the roadway. Roadside drainage can be achieved by using a raised bed, a sump pump, plenum, or a 4 in. return pipe. Drainage can also be controlled through the use of retaining walls to direct runoff.
Gray water, also known as stormwater runoff, is rainfall and melted snow that goes into the ground. It flows naturally to the nearest body of water such as a river, lake or the ocean. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines stormwater runoff as "water that flows from a land surface, through the soil, surficial geology and sub-surface geology, draining either to water bodies or to the atmosphere.". Surface water runoff is believed to cause about 80 to 95 percent of all water quality problems in the United States.
Water-quality problems are detected by testing the soil and/or water. Type of testing is performed by selecting the correct equipment. Most of equipment is commonly available for rental on site. There are many different methods used to test water and soil, including salinity, contamination levels, total dissolved solids, chemical analysis, property determination, pH levels, and chemical determination. Contaminated ground water, surface water and rainfall are some of the problems frequently encountered by stormwater management professionals.
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